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Uldin was also known for defeating Gothic rebels giving trouble to the East Romans around the Danube and beheading the Goth Gainas around 400–401.

Gainas' head was given to the East Romans for display in Constantinople in an apparent exchange of gifts.

Hunnish mercenaries were also seen on several occasions in the succession struggles of the Eastern and Western Roman Empire during the late 4th century.

However, it is most likely that these were individual mercenary bands, not a Hunnish kingdom.

Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection.

However, there is no scholarly consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns.

By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe.

In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC.

Based on the study and categorization of cauldrons from archaeological sites of the Eurasian Steppes, archaeologist Toshio Hayashi concludes that the spread of the cauldrons "may indicate the route of migration of the Hunnic tribes" from Mongolia to the northern region of Central Asia in the 2nd or When writing of the relationship between the Xiongnu and Huns, historian Hyun Jin Kim concludes: "Thus to refer to Hun-Xiongnu links in terms of old racial theories or even ethnic affiliations simply makes a mockery of the actual historical reality of these extensive, multiethnic, polyglot steppe empires".The forces of Emperor Theodosius were fully committed in the west so the Huns moved unopposed until the end of 398 when the eunuch Eutropius gathered together a force composed of Romans and Goths and succeeded in restoring peace.It is uncertain though, whether or not Eutropius' forces defeated the Huns or whether the Huns left on their own.The East Romans began to feel the pressure from Uldin's Huns again in 408.Uldin crossed the Danube and captured a fortress in Moesia named Castra Martis, which was betrayed from within. The East Romans tried to buy Uldin off, but his sum was too high so they instead bought off Uldin's subordinates.

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