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Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as: "..so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan.The target DNA is then washed and the labeled probes that didn't hybridize are removed.The target DNA is then analyzed for the presence of the probe via radioactivity or fluorescence.PCR has many variations, like reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for amplification of RNA, and, more recently, quantitative PCR which allow for quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules Allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a technique that allows detection of single base mutations without the need for PCR or gel electrophoresis.Short (20-25 nucleotides in length), labeled probes are exposed to the non-fragmented target DNA, hybridization occurs with high specificity due to the short length of the probes and even a single base change will hinder hybridization.

The reaction is extremely powerful and under perfect conditions could amplify 1 DNA molecule to become 1.07 billion molecules in less than 2 hours.Cursurile încep imediat după formarea grupelor de studiu formate din minim 15 persoane.Fiecare grupă va fi formată din maximum 30 de persoane.It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology.It must at the same time inquire into genesis and function." Polymerase chain reaction is an extremely versatile technique for copying DNA.

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